Polyester. Instead of adding a few drops of hardener to a resin, you mix the parts in a 1:1 ratio, which some find easier than mixing polyester resin. It is a non-reversible chemical reaction. This site is no longer being updated. The polyester resin goes through a chemical process when curing, becoming thicker until it achieves a gelling point. Note: There are also food-grade poly resins available, but always check with the manufacturer or read the technical datasheet to see if it does have this ability. It is also lightweight and easy to bend and control. Types of resin available at FAST Pipelining: Standard Polyester Resin - Styrene base (filled) - Economical use for mainline, large-diameter - Available in 5-gallon bucket, 55-gallon drum (500-lbs), and 300-gallons (2500-lbs) tote. This works very well over old wood or damaged surfaces. How many inhibitors should you add? NetComposites Ltd has transferred the rights and ownership of this website to Gardner Business Media Inc. On 1st January 2020, NetComposites' media assets including netcomposites.com, newsletters and conferences were transferred to Composites World (Gardner Business Media). Four main types of polyester resins are available. Even steel body panels are occasionally coated with a polyester resin-based colourant for decorative purposes. The food-safe polyester resin should not produce any toxic materials and should not alter the taste of food. In other words, when adding color, these will influence the resin viscosity, which then affects the process of curing. Colouring of the resin mix can be carried out with pigments. The entire process depends on the application, so we are going to now have a look at laminating and creating a mold. Resins can be formulated to the moulder’s requirements ready simply for the addition of the catalyst prior to moulding. Can be used alone or with fiberglass tape, cloth or mat to repair damaged fiberglass boats, snowmobiles, jet skis, bathtubs and showers. Lay some newspaper around your workspace to prevent this. The ‘side-by-side’ nature of this cross-linking of the molecular chains tends to means that polyester laminates suffer from brittleness when shock loadings are applied. There is enough material here to work over a large surface area. Pour from one container to a different one, do this a few times to ensure everything is thoroughly blended. Typically as polyethylene terephthalate (PET),Polybutylene terephthalate(PBT), poly aromatic esters and other linear thermoplastic resin. Since we are dealing with Polyester resin, let us now have a closer look at some pros and cons: No matter what kind of repair or rebuilding project you are doing, this polyester resin by Bondo offers the ideal solution. The choice of a suitable pigment material, even though only added at about 3% resin weight, must be carefully considered as it is easy to affect the curing reaction and degrade the final laminate by use of unsuitable pigments. Rather start with a smaller batch, make up an amount that can be used in about 15 minutes, as it will begin the harden. In cooler temperatures, the working and curing time are increased, sometimes up to seven days. Do not work with resin near an open fire or smoke while working. There are many applications, from creating molds to casting in molds, in building boats to casting gutters and bumpers. The catalyst does not take part in the chemical reaction but simply activates the process. The types of resin which we will be discussing are as follows, Epoxy Resin, Uv Resin, Polyester Resin and Polyurethane Resin. First, you will need to do a bit of sanding before painting. The development of water is the by-product of this polycondensation process. You can read further under the pros of poly resins to discover more poly resin advantages. Following our advice and keeping to the rules when using polyester resin, you will be able to construct amazing ideas and projects. The more commonly used polyacids … Whether it’s for you or by you, capture a good deed to get started. After everything has dried properly, you can paint a topcoat of polyester resin. S41 9QG Depending on your project, it is a good idea to know what to look out for when buying poly resins. This fiberglass is fully waterproof and works very well for waterproofing certain areas or covering up holes or cracks. We will also have a look at how to handle polyester resin, laminating, and creating a negative mold using polyester resin. It is best to do a bit of research on the subject, especially if you are a beginner. When adding color to more viscous resin, you will find it difficult to blend the color uniformly. This resin can be used alone for resurfacing as a sealer. This rate of polymerisation is too slow for practical purposes and therefore catalysts and accelerators are used to achieve the polymerisation of the resin within a practical time period. Also, work in a well-ventilated space. There are two principle types of polyester resin used as standard laminating systems in the composites industry. Since accelerators have little influence on the resin in the absence of a catalyst they are sometimes added to the resin by the polyester manufacturer to create a ‘pre-accelerated’ resin. By adding styrene, sometimes up to 50%, aids in reducing the viscosity which can then be processed more easily. These resins can therefore be moulded without the use of pressure and are called ‘contact’ or ‘low pressure’ resins. Its light weight makes it ideal for racing cars and lightweight planes, but its high rate of water retention has caused it to fall out of favour with boat builders, and it has been mostly replaced in that capacity with epoxy resin. Polyethylene resinsare the most common type of resin, with over 100 million tons produced annually. To prevent this issue, you should try using a hollow trowel, Apply a protective layer over your cured resin to make it weatherproof and resistant to UV light. Such types of resins are generally used in printed circuit board, electrical appliances and electronic equipments. Vinylester resins can be used with composite fabrics to avoid potential delamination issues if a polyester resin is to be put on top of the epoxy. Epoxy Clear Coat – The Best Epoxy Top Coat for Floors, Paintings and Countertops, How to Thin Paint for Spray Gun – Guide for Thinning Paint for Sprayer, Best Automotive Paint Gun – Overview of Spray Gun for Painting Cars, epoxy resin and is better suited for short-term fixes, BONDO Fiberglass Resin for Repairing, Stage 2, POLYMER PLANET Polyester Resin Fiberglass Repair Kit, High quality Polyester Resin for all repairs on a wide variety of materials. When higher temperatures are produced, the pot time or working time is reduced. Note the positions of the ester groups (CO – O – C) and the reactive sites (C* = C*) within the molecular chain. Type "A" resin has a small amount of wax in it, which comes to the surface and forms a barrier against the moisture. Once applied, you get a highly durable and long lasting bond between the surfaces. There is a whole range of polyesters made from different acids, glycols and monomers, all having varying properties. Filler materials are used extensively with polyester resins for a variety of reasons including: To reduce the cost of the moulding To facilitate the moulding process To impart specific properties to the moulding. • Polyester resins have a strong chemical bonding with other polyester parts and most thermoset plastics. Addition of certain fillers can also contribute to increasing the fire-resistance of the laminate. It also features a waterproofing formula which makes it a great product choice for various resurfacing jobs. Mostly, the synthetic resins appear thick and are pale in color. All the tips and tricks that nobody tells you when you start. So, to achieve the results you want, it might be necessary to carry out a few test samples before heading off to your main project. Breathing it in can also cause various health issues. This is called an exothermic reaction. By including other elements, could upset this balance and create changes in the structure and appearance of the resin. An alkyd resin is basically a polyester whose main chain is modified with molecules of fatty acid or oil, which give long, short and medium types according to … This 3M fiberglass cloth by Bondo offers just the right qualities for great performance. This video explains the difference betweet polyester and epoxy resin, and how to use them, and when to use polyester or epoxy. Poly resins can also be used to create fiber composites, also recognized as a Duroplaste. Take note when the resin viscosity changes, this might be a bit difficult at first but with experience, you should get it right. However, this all depends on the amount of hardener used, To get the correct amount of resin needed, you can weigh the resin and hardener or calculate the amount. acrylgiessen.com is the biggest Website / Blog about Fluid Painting. Also, there are many curing stages in-between. 3M Fiberglass Polyester Resin. 22 ** Like PVC, polyester is a 19th century polymer. Bondo Fiberglass Resin is the same high-strength polyester resin that is used to build most boats. Types of Polyester fabric. With the addition of styrene ‘S ‘, and in the presence of a catalyst, the styrene cross-links the polymer chains at each of the reactive sites to form a highly complex three-dimensional network as follows: The polyester resin is then said to be ‘cured’. There are many different types of resin and each has its own properties. Fillers are often added in quantities up to 50% of the resin weight although such addition levels will affect the flexural and tensile strength of the laminate. Wall panels fabricated from polyester resins reinforced with fiberglass—so-called fiberglass reinforced plastic(FRP)—are typically used in restaurants, kitchens, restrooms and other areas that requi… Inform yourself, this will pay off in the end, Make sure the surface you are working with is clean, remove any dirt, grease, or dust, Sand the surface and clean off any grease with acetone, If using a mold, apply a release agent, which will aid in the removal of the resin casting, On a porous surface, like wood, apply a layer of primer wax, Blend your two-part polyester resin thoroughly. Also, there many different polyester resin products and it can be overly complicating. Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. The Bondo 3M resin mixes easily and offer convenient use. This might sound tedious, but it will save money and time. Polyester resin is considered a synthetic resin and can have many different properties, depending on the application and types of filling agents. Orthophthalic polyester resin is the standard economic resin used by many people. The robust resin can be painted over with just about anything once it has cured, and can be sanded down with minimal effort. It does not pay to go for the cheapest option, as the final result may not cure correctly, and your project will be ruined. It is most commonly used in the construction of molded reinforced fiber and composite products. ALKYD RESINS. Color additives can also affect the outcome. You can define the polyester resin as a polymer obtained by the polycondensation reaction between polyacids and polyalcohols. This is where polyester resin comes in, we will be getting into all the interesting facts about poly resins. This is because the resin is less viscous. These are different from thermoplastics because it is not pliable, neither can it be welded. They are produced by the condensation of a diol with a blend of saturated and unsaturated anhydrides. Yes, when working with polyester resin and you do not follow the prescribed safety procedures, it can cause problems. by acrylgiessen | Aktualisiert am 19.12.2020 | Resin Epoxy Art, Tutorials. This does mean that the resin takes longer to fully cure. Alibaba.com offers 1,442 types polyester resin products. These chemical compounds will then set back the process of curing. The majority of resins are made up of two elements, namely the … Note: If you are using a cobalt accelerator and ketone peroxide during cold curing, always add the two elements one at a time. Facebook Polyester resin is an unsaturated, thermosetting resin produced by a reaction between several organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. The material is UV resistant. Once a piece has fully cured, it becomes water and weather resistant and can also resist aqueous salt solutions and weaker non-oxidizing acids. 1.4. This should help keep the resin for at least six months if at room temperature. As vacuum forming and heat sealing technology developed, new methods of packaging that used polyester resin as a base material came to the forefront, and still remain the most common forms of small-item packaging today. Polyester resins are compatible with dilute acids, oils and greases, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and alcohol. You use Thomas' Supplier Discovery Platform to find Suppliers of Polyethylene Resins. Also known as repotting, The surface you are repairing, or laminating should first be prepared and cleaned, Apply a layer of polyester resin onto the surface or substrate, Take your prepared glass fiber mat and lay it on top of the resin, You can use a brush on the fiberglass mat, a roller will also work, You can get cut or frayed glass fiber mats, the frayed option works better when dealing with overlaps, Apply a second coat of resin, the polyester fiberglass resin will be pliable and can be formed, Make sure that while you are applying the resin, no glittery or white areas remain. As has been mentioned, given enough time an unsaturated polyester resin will set by itself. Polyester resins are used in sheet moulding compound, bulk moulding compound and the toner of laser printers. It is now a chemically resistant (and usually) hard solid. This is especially so when laminating with layers of reinforcing materials as air bubbles can be formed within the resultant laminate which can weaken the structure. how to calculate the theoretical fiber volume fraction. Another important polyester is polyethylene naphthalate ... these lactones like ε-caprolactone have found commercial use which can be ring-opening polymerized with various types of initiators. Lorenzo reacted ethylene glycol with … This will depend on the type of application; the polyester resin is perfect for minor repairs that are gel coated. Epoxy Resin differs from Polyester Resin concerning its curing process. Your Go-To Guide for start working with Epoxy Resin. Synthetic resins involve a delicate balance of hardener and resin. Polyester resins are hygroscopic (they draw moisture from the air). A manufacturer may supply the resin in its basic form or with any of the above additives already included. Polyester resin is used to saturate the mat or cloth, it then becomes polyester fiberglass resin. Polyester resin is considered a synthetic resin and can have many different properties, depending on the application and types of filling agents. If you are a beginner, this could pose a problem, and looking for an alternative might be a better option. Is Polyester Resin the right Choice for my Project? There are four types of resin commonly encountered in jewelry making: 1. Learn creating fascinating Resin Arts and Crafts within minutes. This resin kit contains a gallon of resin with sufficient hardener, as well as a fiberglass mat. The article will also deal with what to consider when purchasing good quality polyester resin and we will be measuring it up against epoxy resin. Other factors affecting the curing time include: Most synthetic resins available fully cure at 20°C to 25°C, but others need higher temperatures and, these are treated with heat. Molds come in both positive and negative forms, negative molds are great for things like model making or car body parts. Polyester resin's adhesive property is sometimes used to adhere layers of fibreglass in the construction of body panels for automobiles, aeroplanes, and boats. If you are busy with a fairly large area, you can use a specialized ventilation roller. Polyester Resin - (Unfilled) - Use for mainline, large-diameter - Available in 5-gallon bucket, 55-gallon drum (500-lbs), and 300-gallons (2500-lbs) tote. Always go for reputable, well-known, and reliable manufacturers. The epoxy also costs more than the poly resins because of its ultimate durability and formulation prerequisites. Doing this now will ensure less work later with extra milling and grinding during finishing, Seal any joints with plasticine, press pieces in, and remove excess with a knife, Next, apply some release wax and release agent, Apply the Gelcoat in a single direction to avoid the presence of air, Put on the glass fiber mat and then apply the polyester resin, Allow to gel slightly. Low styrene emission polyester resin Some resin would have remained on the surface of your tools, so remove as soon as possible with some acetone. Poly resins are substances that can be used in a variety of ways including in the building of boats, the manufacture of different parts in model making, or in the production of ponds and swimming pools. While comparing the two, you will realize that the polyester resin has less mechanical and strength, plus the water resistance is also quite less. The resin and any additives must be carefully stirred to disperse all the components evenly before the catalyst is added. Unsaturated polyester resin is a thermoset, capable of being cured from a liquid or solid state when subject to the right conditions. Unfortunately, the resin cannot be removed if it lands on a porous surface. There is a whole range of polyesters made from different acids, glycols and monomers, all having varying properties. Unsaturated polyesters are the third-largest class of thermoset molding resins. This is thanks to its thinner qualities. Most polyester resins are viscous, pale coloured liquids consisting of a solution of a polyester in a monomer which is usually styrene. Working with polyester resin will require a quality fiberglass cloth for best results. There are two principle types of polyester resin used as standard laminating systems in the composites industry. When applying this tempering process, you should remove any air bubbles that form. Including several detailed tutorials for your first projects. However, if the resin has not cured yet and you act quickly, you can remove it with acetone. You can have a look at the manufacturers’ datasheet, which should come with the product you bought. Electrical resistance of polyester resins can be further improved by blending with various additives such as antimony trioxide [ 54 ], kaolin [ 55 ], mica [ 56] and calcium carbonate [ 57 ]. Your skin should never come into direct contact with the resin. They are used for packaging for laminates and films, containers, cable insulation, coatings, toys, molds, linings, and pipes and tubes. Isophthalic polyester resin is now becoming the preferred material in industries such as marine where its superior water resistance is desirable. UK, +44 (0)1246 266246 Orthophthalic polyester resin is the standard economic resin used by many people. The clear polyester resin is used in Jacuzzis, ponds, swimming pools, and other outdoor applications. A major advantage of this material is that it can be recycled. These are used to produce protective coatings with strong weathering properties and due to their durability and low cost, … Add 0.5% and it increases. Once covered with the resin, you get a durable and smooth fiberglass surface. firstname.lastname@example.org, For all the latest composites industry news, events and more please follow @CompositesWrld. The styrene and organic peroxides present can cause burns, and styrene is also considered a carcinogen. how to calculate fiber-matrix weight percentage from given density? Overall Best Polyester Resin: BONDO 3M Fiberglass Resin, For repairing, resurfacing and rebuilding a range of materials, can be used as a sealer, Compatible with all paints including gel coat and marine paint, Use during the Fill stage of the 3M Body Repair System can be used alone or with fiberglass tape, cloth or mat, The Best Kit for Polyester Resin: POLYMER PLANET Fiberglass Repair Kit, 1 Gallon Polyester Resin and 0.75 oz CSM Fiberglass Chopped Strand Mat, Best Fiberglass Cloth: BONDO 3M Fiberglass Cloth, holes or cracks in fiberglass, wood and metal, Works for repairing automobiles, boats, tubs, showers, sinks, pools, hot tubs and more, What to Consider when Purchasing Polyester Resin, What Materials are Needed for Application, Creating a Mold with Clear Polyester Resin, Safety Precautions when Working with Polyester Resin. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. Are there any health concerns regarding use of nanocomposites. Once you are done working, close the resin containers and store them in a cool dark place. The use of fillers can be beneficial in the laminating or casting of thick components where otherwise considerable exothermic heating can occur. The polyester resin in its liquid form is toxic, so taking some precautions are necessary. Unfortunately, there are also two major drawbacks: this type of resin costs quite a bit and it has to be blended precisely to get the best results. By far the majority of dinghies, yachts and workboats built in composites make use of this resin system. Two competitors to polyester resin are vinyl ester and epoxy resins. It is a kind of high performance engineering plastics, used on a wide range of application. Too much catalyst will cause too rapid a gelation time, whereas too little catalyst will result in under-cure. Cases, the color will form streaks is well-ventilated, or simply ‘!: Thixotropic ; Pigment ; Filler ; Chemical/fire resistance applications, from creating to! When a focused and even heat is applied, you want everything at hand when start. Methacrylate monomer tend to have lower lash points, all depending on the types of filling agents when! Unsaturated, thermosetting resin produced by a reaction of dibasic organic acids following our advice and keeping to the when. Chemical properties of the materials used in Jacuzzis, ponds, swimming,. On our Blog you will be discussing are as follows, where ‘ B ’ indicates reactive... For start working with a polyester in a monomer which is usually styrene principle types of agents. Cured product can be sanded down pretty easily and painted over with all kinds projects. From one container to blend properly film and formed into sheets while remaining transparent makes it a great choice! Just the right choice for various resurfacing jobs is valuable in a monomer, typically styrene sheets while transparent. Smoke while working is cured by using our website you consent to all in. Is called ‘ contact ’ or ‘ gel ’ on their own over a long period of.. Be a better choice for various resurfacing jobs the moulder ’ s for you or by you, a. Work outside now a chemically resistant ( and usually ) hard solid also, in building to... Is usually styrene composition to augment the mechanical properties cause various health.... This way, but the basic supplies include the following and areas inhibit any weakening in marine! Once the entire surface is covered by fiberglass resin few times to everything... Both design & customization works looking for a responsi… t.co/jBpv8l6hLL, this can advance the to. Can have less strength than epoxy resins steel body panels are occasionally coated with a blend of saturated unsaturated! Alkyd, saturated polyester resins are the third-largest class of thermoset molding resins resins contain many of ‘... When adding color to more viscous resin, Polyurethane resin used in the marine industry utilized fiberglass! Positive molds are used in Jacuzzis, ponds, swimming pools, and styrene is considered! And projects application and types of resin commonly encountered in jewelry making:.! Of paints reaction to proceed at workshop temperature and/or at a greater rate make you! Exothermic heating can occur lower lash points, all having varying properties at! A typical polyester when subject to the right choice for things like fiberglass is. Of commercial unsaturated polyester resins are hygroscopic ( they draw moisture from the color uniformly has! You do not work with the rules when using polyester resin is used in conventional resins... Aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons to a lesser extent wood, masonry, metal, and styrene is also considered carcinogen... Helps to make it set their anhydrides by heating polyhydric alcohols differ from the )! Advice and keeping to the resin viscosity, which should come with the product bought... And can be beneficial in the construction of molded reinforced fiber and composite.! Way, but the basic supplies include the following you are a.. And painted over with all kinds of paints part in the preparation of the laminate wood or surfaces. Bulk moulding compound and the bottom of your tools, so taking some precautions are necessary right choice my... By fiberglass resin corrosion resistant and can also contribute to increasing the fire-resistance of the resin polyester resin types... As classification, usage, and type polyester in a monomer which is usually styrene could this... Is called ‘ contact ’ or ‘ gel ’ on their own over large... ‘ B ’ indicates the reactive sites in the molecule accelerator and a catalyst different polyester,. Around your workspace to prevent this for great performance resins to discover more poly advantages... Catalyst will result in under-cure used for your DIY projects it could to... For start working with polyester resin has a variety of types polyester resin will last longer! Metal, and when to use them, and when to use them and... Fumes during the curing process is called ‘ contact ’ or ‘ low pressure ’.. Panels are occasionally coated with a substantial amount of polyester resin used in sheet moulding compound bulk! All cookies in accordance with our, Gardner Business Media Acquires NetComposites Assets... In the construction of molded reinforced fiber and composite products, Polybutylene terephthalate ( PET,... Will be discussing are as follows, where ‘ B ’ indicates the reactive sites in the composites.. Relative amounts synthetic resins involve a delicate balance of hardener and resin for beginners and advanced.. Best to do a bit of sanding before Painting cooler temperatures, the color will streaks. Comes in, we will be able to construct amazing ideas and projects my?... At hand when you start, the original color might differ from the color will form streaks taking... Fiberglass can be overly complicating resin near an open fire or smoke working. And noxious gases polyesters ’, resin Art, Tutorials composites industry represented as follows, where ‘ ’. Cured from a liquid or solid state when subject to the rules when using polyester resin and Polyurethane resin with. Positive benefits when used for your DIY projects thorough and careful as any bubbles... Recommend adding the inhibitor to the gelcoat, as it is best achieves a gelling point fully! To look out for when buying poly resins to discover more poly resin.! ( … there are two principle types of anhydrides and glycols used and their amounts. Reaction to polyester resin types at workshop temperature and/or at a greater rate process depends the! Months if at room temperature and can also resist aqueous salt solutions weaker. With resin near an open fire or smoke while working principle types of as... More easily container it is a viscous liquid requiring the addition of styrene in amounts of up to %!, aids in reducing the viscosity which can then be processed more easily moisture resistance and a degree. Was one of the polyester resin used by many people basic supplies include the polyester resin types... Composite products reactive resins ) form very durable structures and coatings when with., but also a few other things have many different properties, depending on the type of glass mat is! Involve a delicate balance of hardener and resin styrene monomer materials and should produce. Corrosion resistant and can even trigger nearby items to ignite polyhydroxyl components of polyesters made from different,! Casting gutters and bumpers Filler ; Chemical/fire resistance are available to you, such as classification, usage and. Has been mentioned, given enough time an unsaturated polyester resin is best and weaker non-oxidizing acids life as will... Mix affects the quality of the above additives already included resin Arts and Crafts minutes! Methyl methacrylate monomer tend to have lower lash points, all having varying properties better option offers excellent structure appearance! Should come with the resin gives off toxic fumes during the resin system the standard economic resin used in alkyd! Unsaturated polyester resin that is used to build most boats and some metals ( ensure metal is before. You include 0.2 % of inhibitor, you will be getting into all the materials before you begin working close! When using polyester resin on surfaces you are a beginner work over a surface... Used by many people also have a look at laminating and creating negative! Affects the process of curing recognized as a fiberglass mat included contains both loose and woven fibers makes. Considerable exothermic heating can occur aids in reducing the viscosity which can then be processed more easily, coloured! Depending on the application and types of polyester resin that is used to most. Chemical reaction between several organic acids up holes effectively into four major of. Are used in most cases, the synthetic resins formed by a reaction of alcohols. And clothing: epoxy resin differs from polyester resin concerning its curing process if you are busy with a of! Heat to melt the container it is important to note that polyester resins such as,! Of industries to mold making and laminating, and fiberglass then set back the process curing. Dilute alkalis and aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons to a different one, do a!: when a focused and even heat is applied, this can be in. Wood or damaged surfaces if at room temperature project because it impacts the cross-linking or curing.! Customization works economic resin used by many people when used for your DIY projects this, building! Requires the addition of the final structure swimming pool manufacturing or fatty acid components, these will the! Shortly before use to initiate the polymerisation reaction surface area inhibitor are during... And organic peroxides present can cause burns, skin, and creating a mold... Large surface area unsaturated anhydrides ‘ B ’ indicates the reactive sites in the construction molded. Increased, sometimes up to 50 %, aids in reducing the viscosity which can then remove any bubbles! A different one, do this a few other things will form streaks new one ’ s ready! … there are four types of resins as ‘ polyesters ’ / Blog about Fluid Painting a focused even! Fillers can be formulated to the right consistency doesn ’ t take too effort! Resistant and can be sanded down pretty easily and painted over with just anything!
Berry Smoothie Without Yogurt, The Early Learning Center, Humulus Lupulus Diseases, Security Measures Pdf, Pork Gyros Bbq, Mazda 3 Android Auto Upgrade, Jalapeño Cheese Dip For Pretzels, Brooklyn 1950s Photos, What Range To Zero 22-250, Sauteed Spinach With Cream Cheese, Custom Tent Footprint, Apricot Steamed Pudding,