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To quantitatively capture the degree of agreement to each item by the respondents, the items were scored from the lowest to the highest. B., Green, S. E. (, Ayele, K., Tesfa, B., Abebe, L., Tilahun, T., Girma, E. (, Baumann, L. C., Opio, C. K., Otim, M., Olson, L., Ellison, S. (, Bautista-Martinez, S., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Lerman, I., Velasco, M., Castellanos, R., Zenteno, E., . If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Finally, cues to action deals with either external (e.g., reminders from family members when to take medications) or internal (e.g. Populations facing great diabetes burdens and risks need to seek support from the Community Based Diabetes Self-Management Education Health Promotion Program. This agrees with Glasgow and Anderson’s (1999) claim that disease-specific diabetes knowledge may be a process or mediating variable that interacts with other factors to affect self-care, which may affect short- and long-term health outcomes. The study showed that, even though some respondents had high diabetes knowledge, some of them still had low management status. Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 43 Figure 2 Basic Elements of the Health Belief Model with their recommended therapies. The mean of the four items served as the measure of perceived benefits (M = 17.16, SD = 2.20). For example, a 59 year old woman who sunbathes every day who doesn’t believe that she is at risk of skin cancer will continue to sun bathe. Baumann, Opio, Otim, Olson, and Ellison (2010) found that few patients did home glucose monitoring, considered activities of daily living as regular exercise, and lack healthy food choices. (1983), on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, to measure the beliefs of diabetic patients about their diabetes. A. Lean Library can solve it. Table 1. There are no data on the incidence and prevalence of diabetes among the Igala except the national prevalence rate of 3.9 %, as estimated by the International Diabetes Federation (2009) for Nigeria. Samuel Ojima Adejoh lectures in the Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, Nigeria, at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. This model was developed in the 1950s but was upgraded in the 1980s. Table 1 below shows that 38% of the respondents could not identify food that contains carbohydrate, and 43% could not identify food with the highest concentration of fat. The health belief model (HBM), developed by Becker and Maiman (1975), is useful in explicating self-care activities such as diabetes management recommendations and has a focus on behavior related to the prevention of disease. 7 Currently, 89% of the U.S. population perceives diabetes as a serious disease. J5ÌÙ½³—fœ¡þsôNjȌƹef8Ü%‚eÑ0甯p(ê©ùÒ=•,¢|,è5MK5Œ9(”á˜H2Ô$ãžÑ‘Ø”–”RàÂ2Ï×÷ÇkÛÌÝÐ?Ž%¶¾äQBèŸÛÓ0œ£¯².Êg Type 2 diabetes is said to be positioned to be one of the largest epidemics in human history and one of the major threats to human health in the 21st century (Zimmet, Alberti, & Shaw, 2001). However, it is hoped that the findings from this study will stimulate further studies on diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and diabetes management in Nigeria, with particular focus on cultural beliefs in relation to diabetes health beliefs. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. A study on illness beliefs and diabetes in Uganda adults identified patients’ limited knowledge about diabetes in general as a major problem in diabetes management (Ujelm & Nambozi, 2008). The first variable, susceptibility, refers to the perception of vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. Diabetes management was measured using self-reports of the respondents on the performance of their physicians’ recommendations on medication, regular blood glucose testing, weight management, eye and foot examination, regular clinic visits, and regular physical exercise. The data were analyzed using SPSS. male patient educated up to pdc suffering from diabetes for the last 10 years and the health promotion model. The bivariate analysis showed that 73% and 17% of those with low and high perception of severity had poor diabetes management status, respectively, whereas 27% and 83% of those with low and high perception of severity of diabetes, respectively, had good diabetes management status. Also, 29% of them had no formal education, 23% had primary education, 18% secondary education, and 26% post-secondary education. The low level of diabetes knowledge found in this study compares relatively with other studies on diabetes knowledge by Fitzgerald et al. There could be the problem of recall from the respondents, which might make the reliability of the responses difficult to validate. Four items assessed perceived severity on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Similarly, Cerkoney and Hart (1980) found that the combination of the five HBM variables accounted for 25% of the variance in adherence, as measured by self-report in combination with a reactive direct observational procedure. (1996) identify other components to include behavioral skills, cognitive problem-solving abilities, and a sense of efficacy in bringing these capabilities to bear to affect disease outcome. About 36% did not know what is the best method for testing blood glucose, while 9% said that it is through urine testing. Four items were used to measure perceived benefits of taking action by the respondents. This model can be very useful in designing health promotion programming. Participants responded to four items about their perceived susceptibility to complications (such as “my diabetes would be worse if I did nothing about it”). The statistics showed that there was a significant relationship between perceived benefits and diabetes management (1, N = 152) = 12.383, p = .000. Distribution of Respondents by Diabetes Knowledge and Diabetes Management. The second variable, severity, is the perception of diabetes as a serious illness, ranging from perceiving complications, such as blindness, to viewing diabetes as a life-threatening disease. Significant relationship existed between level of diabetes knowledge and diabetes management (1, N = 152) = 8.456, p = .004. According to the Health Belief Model, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, defined as an individual's subjective perception of risk of developing a disease or a condition, is a key factor in predicting whether a person will adopt healthy behaviors to reduce that risk. The mean age support Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekwaba, Ojule, and Babatunde (2003), who state that diabetes is more frequently found in people aged 50 years and above in Nigeria. As the findings show, perceived severity and perceived benefits were significantly related to diabetes management. The respondents’ mean age was 56. Although diabetes knowledge and health belief are cognitive factors in diabetes management, they should not be considered in isolation of other social factors. The Health Belief Model The Health Belief Model is a tool that is used to predict different health behaviors in a person. The health belief model was created in the 1950s by social scientists who wanted to understand why few people responded to a … Diabetes Knowledge, Health Belief, and Diabetes Management Among the Igala, Nigeria, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Baumann, Opio, Otim, Olson, and Ellison (2010), Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekwaba, Ojule, and Babatunde (2003), Jabbar, Contractor, Ebrahim, & Moahmood, 2001, Ayele, Tesfa, Abebe, Tilahun, and Girma (2012), Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine: A Test of the Health Belief Model, College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs. Table 4 above reveals the relative influence of diabetes knowledge on the management of diabetes. Автор: Serj на 04:01. Table 2 above shows that 49% of the participants had low diabetes knowledge, whereas 51% had high diabetes knowledge. (, Chinyere, H. N., Nandy, B., Nwankwo, B. O. Research Study Summary: A Health Belief Model-Social Learning Theory Approach to Adolescents' Fertility Control: Findings from a Controlled Field Trial 5. The DKT consisted of 7 items administered to the respondents. Table 5. In this example, the interventions are aimed at This could have implications for how a person will manage his or her condition. The health belief model (HBM), developed by Becker and Maiman (1975), is useful in explicating self-care activities such as diabetes management recommendations and has a focus on behavior related to the prevention of disease. The study only took a convenient sample from one ethnic group in an ethnically diverse region. The chi-square result showed that there was no significant relationship between perceived barriers and diabetes management (p > .05). However, metabolic control was not included, as it requires blood samples which were not performed in this study. A., Gallin, R. S., Condon, J. W. (, Glasgow, R. E., McCaul, K. D., Schafer, L. C. (, Harrison, J. For example, most individuals are very aware that obesity often leads to the development of diabetes. This finding is in line with the study by Bautista-Martinez et al. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. This enabled ranking as high or low, good or poor. The 7 items were directly from the University of Michigan DKT (2006) of 14 items but with modification, substituting the food items on the original DKT with the locally available food consumed in the study population. This particular model of diabetes education involves four different components. If people living with diabetes are to follow their physicians’ recommendations, it is imperative for the physicians to understand their knowledge of diabetes and health beliefs about diabetes and how these affect their following physicians’ recommendations. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala in Kogi State, Nigeria. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. Such practices include eating a healthy diet, performing physical exercise, taking medication as prescribed, monitoring of blood glucose level, regular clinic visits, and managing stress, among other practices (American Diabetes Association, 2002). Health belief model, Type-2 diabetes, Education, Diabetes management, Oman Research Article Open Access Introduction The health of Omanis has been dramatically affected by the recent affluence in the country. These were used to measure the diabetes knowledge and beliefs about diabetes from those with the condition. Relative Influence of Health Belief on Diabetes Management. Using HBM, the likelihood of individuals with diabetes mellitus adhering to biomedical prescription is determined by certain variables. health belief model and the application of health belief model. The prevalence rate in Nigeria varies from one location to another, for example, 0.65% in rural Mangu village to 11.0% in urban Lagos. Our findings suggest that, for depressed individuals, one’s uncertainty regarding the condition and treatment drives each element of the health belief model. Understanding knowledge of diabetes and health beliefs may help in designing an effective intervention program for those living with diabetes. Major Concepts 2. In this section, you will find the following: 1. Three broad areas can be identified: (a) preventive health behaviors, which include health promoting (such as diet, exercise) and health-risk (such as smoking) behaviors as well as vaccination and contraceptive practices; (b) sick-role behaviors, which refer to compliance with recommended medical regimens, usually following professional diagnosis of illness; and (c) clinic use, which includes physician visits for a variety of reasons. Boston (1969) likens the location of the Igala to Poland in Europe, which seems to have been pulled in different directions at different periods. ’Çô ! The Health Belief Model (HBM) identified five basic dimensions as a basis for behaviour: perceived severity of the condition, perceived susceptibility or vulnerability to the disease process, perceived benefits (belief in efficacy), costs/barriers, and cues to action, which may be internal (symptoms) or external (health education, illness of family or friend) [22, 23]. Add filter for American Diabetes Association (1) ... BACKGROUND: The Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are used to explain screening behavior. In this study, diabetes knowledge was associated with management status. So the generalization of these findings must be with caution. Origin of the Health Belief Model. Distribution of Respondents by HBM Variables, Aggregate HBM, and Diabetes Management. The findings of this study are in line with a review which found that the individual components (severity, susceptibility, benefits, and barriers) each only accounted for 0.5% to 4% of the variance in behavior (Harrison, Mullen, & Green, 1992). The analysis shows a significant relationship between perception of severity and diabetes management (1, N = 152) = 47.5555549, p = .000. The implication of the finding is that diabetes knowledge is an important factor on how patients will follow their management plan but should not be seen as an end in itself. Diabetes Care 1980 Sep; 3 … For the illiterate respondents, the questionnaire was transcribed from English to the Igala language and back to English by experts in spoken and written Igala. The item scores for each scale were then summed up to serve as the measure for the respective attribute. The value expectancy assumption of the model seems weak among the study respondents. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Kogi State Ministry of Health. The means of these ratings served as measures of perceived severity (M = 13.38, SD = 2.07). The model is based on the theory that a person's willingness to change their health behaviorsis primarily due to the following factors. Ùpª“Æ´ADÁˆþìœÉ'{ß=Ø>Xе)lF¹‡³ôÛá¢núÖ:ƒ™Hm# ¹Ä!a$Ö:¤´§Ss>£ çE“@çà÷8ÂDâM(&BD 9@l)nû‡_x80°&QKè[âÚ×@ Œ3x N}%Ú]õñô.²µ“+b|‰W^¾Ã«ß;‰…Rˬ0Æ}ÐàJ³…[ájîì4 £÷§°–2ô•†ÆPH»c^ø‚²£àLëLjéz0C¯~ޞšn. How Can I Use the Health Belief Model in my Setting? Garcia and Mann (2003) also confirmed the predictability of three variables out of the four variables, with susceptibility, barriers, and benefits explaining 43% of the variance of intention to resist dieting. Frederick Fennell, Mercury Records, and the Eastma... An Empirical Revision of the Definition of Science Fiction: It Is All ... Social Concern, Government Regulation, and Industry Self-Regulation: A... Al-Deagi, F. A., McElnay, J. C., Scott, M. G. (, Arndt, V., Stürmer, T., Stegmaier, C., Ziegler, H., Dhom, G., Brenner, H. (, Arseneau, D. L., Mason, A. C., Wood, O. Examples are “I believe I can control my diabetes” and “my medicine would make me feel better” assessed on a 5-point scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. dKЭ›%»leç|˜:sP}¼Î]û8Ÿ*PÜ¢¾™×H]”M˜ZºTæÄ¥öÉkÃ\u_@¯ºùë6TßG±+Äí‰Ñ*LJ#Z{º)߇®=u÷/Aº¶–8À/zïußGJ"eȀjB¼Ò`âà,ªÿëñ0D=ÙR1ʏ@Ésl ^ʅI ²EWF¿‚z~½©‡ŒO Ü?Õ/Aým˜ÌX`”é[Æéç¦ÿgF Ÿ¤Zp°•AvWÓêÓ¯‹. A., Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W. (, Jabbar, A., Contractor, Z., Ebrahim, M. A., Moahmood, K. (, Kamal, A., Biessels, G. J., Duis, S. E. J., Gispen, W. H. (, Lorig, K., Steward, A., Ritter, P., Gonzalez, V., Luarent, D., Lynch, J. In general, studies using the health belief model for diabetic patients show that priority is given foremost to perceived benefits and next to perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers, in that order, for adopting different behaviors. This may be explained by the fact that not all the constructs of HBM will directly affect diabetes management. The fourth variable, barriers, refers to the perceived costs of adhering to the regimen. This article is part of the following special collection(s): Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Factors leading to non-compliance in elderly patients, Perception of severity of disease and health locus of control in compliant and noncompliant diabetic patients, Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus, Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: A population-based study, A comparison of learning activity packages and classroom instruction for diet management of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The health belief model perspective, Self-care beliefs and behaviors in Ugandan adults with type 2 diabetes, Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations, The role of health beliefs in the regimen adherence and metabolic control of adolescents and adults with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between the health belief model and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus, Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus—Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008): Results of a multicenter study, Factors influencing diabetes management outcome among patients attending government health facilities in South East, Nigeria, Putting diabetes to the test: Analyzing glycemic control based on patients’ diabetes knowledge, The reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test, From “I wish” to “I will.” Social-cognitive predictors of behavioral intentions, Development of scales to measures beliefs of diabetic patients, In diabetes care, moving from compliance to adherence is not enough: Something entirely different is needed, Barriers to regimen adherence among persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, A meta-analysis of studies of the health belief model, Problem solving in diabetes self-management: A model of chronic illness self-management behavior, Standard of knowledge about their disease among patients with diabetes in Karachi, Pakistan, Learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Interaction of diabetes and ageing, Theory and practical applications of a wellness perspective in diabetes education, Factors affecting diabetes knowledge in type 2 diabetic veterans, Comparison of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of dieting and fasting behavior, Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: A study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt Nigeria, Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Beliefs about health and illness: A comparison between Ugandan men and women living with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between socio- demographic characteristics and dental health knowledge and attitudes of parents with young children, Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Rather, other factors, such as socio-demographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perception, psychosocial factors, patients’ factors, and cultural beliefs (Arndt et al., 2001; Williams, Whittle, & Gatrell, 2002), will have to be all present to activate the beliefs. The HBM scale consisted of 16 items and was found to be reliable (16 items: α = 71), the subscales of perceived susceptibility (α = 72), perceived severity (α = 63), perceived benefits (α = 74), and perceived barriers (α = 71). How the Health Belief Model was Developed 3. The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge, diabetes beliefs, and diabetes management, including self-report to following physician’s recommendations. To ascertain how many of the respondents scored high (good or satisfactory) or low (bad or poor) on each of the attributes, a norm above which a person was high and below which was low was created by adopting the mean. While other empirical evidences from other studies suggest that people affected with diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors, and associated complications (Jabbar, Contractor, Ebrahim, & Moahmood, 2001; Kamal, Biessels, Duis, & Gispen, 2000). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 152 respondents living with diabetes. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Figure 3 shows how planners can use the health belief model to develop interventions to address obesity to avoid diabetes. The result on the aggregate of all subscales of HBM showed that 42% and 51% of those with low and high perception of health belief, respectively, had poor diabetes management status, whereas 58% and 49% of those with low and high perception of health belief, respectively, had good management status. The Igala are an ethnic group in Kogi east, Nigeria. Hence, the hypothesis that stated that perceived susceptibility to complications of diabetes will motivate the individual to follow doctor’s recommendations was rejected. Health Belief Model Of The American Diabetes Association, The Complications And Cost Acquired From Diabetes 767 Words | 4 Pages. FundingThe author(s) received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article. However, performing these practices has remained problematic for those living with the condition as it requires behavioral change. This may be related to the perceived susceptibility of health belief, particularly the assertion that knowledge of the complications of diabetes may lead to taking the necessary preventive measures. The health belief model (HBM)) is a social psychological health behavior change model developed to explain and predict health-related behaviors, particularly in regard to the uptake of health services. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Moreover, the Health Belief Model deals only with personal perceptions such as perceived risk and perceived cost and thus is too subjective for application. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. This site uses cookies. endstream endobj 56 0 obj 1540 endobj 57 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 56 0 R >> stream You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. 6. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. the desire to avoid complications of diabetes; but the model does not consider factors responsible for enabling and maintaining preventive behavior over time (Janz, Champion, & Strecher, 2002). The first component is perceived benefits. Nejad, Wertheim, and Greenwood (2005) found that the best predictors of weight loss were perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits, while perceived benefits of dieting and severity (a measure of how negatively weight gain is perceived) significantly predicted intention to diet. .Rull-Rodrigo, J. The respondents reported their belief of severity of their diabetes by rating how serious their diabetes will have bad effect on their future health (for instance, “my diabetes will cause me to be sick a lot”). This theory is based on the fact that the people tend to change their health behavior due to … Search results Jump to search results. How do individuals perceive developing problems due to diabetes, for example, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia? The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala, Nigeria. Social care terms and conditions and check the box to generate a Sharing link disagree to strongly.... 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